definition sketch in Figure 5 is used to obtain the

value of the correction factor *C*θ from Figure 4.

(8) The vertical shear force determined using the

simplified procedure can be incorporated in conven-

tional equilibrium calculations. The results should be

checked against the recommended criteria (EM 1110-

2-1605, EM 1110-2-2502, EM 1110-2-2602, ETL

1110-2-22, ETL 1110-2-256, ETL 1110-2-310).

When a toe fill of significant height exists, a vertical

shear force at the toe should be included in the equi-

be obtained by including the vertical shear force in

librium calculations if a vertical shear force was

design.

applied to the back side of the wall. Neglecting the

vertical shear force at the toe could result in uncon-

(5) Figure 3 also shows that the limiting value of

servative estimates of the base contact area and the

(*K*v)vert develops at lower wall heights for walls with

maximum bearing pressure on the foundation.

loose backfill than for walls with dense backfill.

(9) Use of the simplified procedure to obtain a

(6) Figures 4 and 5 show the values of the cor-

vertical shear force for stability calculations is

restricted to gravity earth retaining walls that satisfy

rection factors *C*θ and *C*s, respectively, that are to be

the following criteria:

applied.

(a) The vertical displacements within the founda-

(7) An example application of the simplified

tion during construction of the wall and backfilling

procedure is shown in Figure 6. It can be noted that

are negligible when compared with the vertical settle-

the steps in the back side of the wall in Figure 6 are

ment within the backfill due to self-weight. Gravity-

not uniform. An average slope consistent with the

5

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