31 May 93
b. EM 1110-2-2000. "Standard Practice for
procedures required to test potential planes of weak-
ness such as occur at lift joints.
b. Serviceability of an RCC structure is a func-
c. EM 1110-2-2006. "Roller Compacted
tion of durability, seepage control, and crack con-
trol. These are dependent on mixture ingredients,
d. EM 1110-2-2200. "Gravity Dam Design."
mixture proportioning, and field control. Again, the
structural engineer should work with the materials
e. ETL 1110-2-324. "Special Design Provi-
engineer to develop a testing program that will
assure that properties important to serviceability can
sions for Massive Concrete Structures."
be achieved throughout the RCC placement. In
f. Heaton, B. S. 1968 (Oct). "Strength, Dura-
massive RCC structures, the cement content, place-
ment temperatures, construction sequencing, and
bility, and Shrinkage of Incompletely Compacted
Concrete," ACI Journal, pp 846-850.
thermal gradients will affect the spacing, location,
and widths of cracks. Special design provisions for
massive concrete structures as described in
ETL 1110-2-324 (Reference 12e), should be consid-
a. American Concrete Institute Committee
ered in the design of massive RCC structures.
Options which can be used to minimize thermal
207. 1970 (Apr). "Mass Concrete for Dams and
Other Massive Structures," ACI Journal, Proceed-
stresses include: (1) cement replacement with
pozzolan, (2) limiting placement to cool weather
ings, Vol 67, No. 4.
times of the year, (3) lowering the placement tem-
b. American Concrete Institute Committee
perature, and, (4) jointing. Because of the rapid
rate of RCC construction, it is extremely important
210. 1987 (Mar-Apr). "Erosion of Concrete in
that any conditions that can lead to poor consolida-
Hydraulic Structures," ACI 210R-87, ACI
tion and poor joint bonding are recognized and
corrected immediately. The structural designer
c. U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Technical
should work closely with the materials engineer and
quality control personnel to identify poor consolida-
Memorandum. 1984 (Apr). "Design and Analysis
tion and construction practices and to implement
of Upper Stillwater, Roller Compacted Concrete
changes to correct any deficiencies. This is best
Gravity Dam," No. US 02-221-AGD-84.
accomplished with a test section placed as part of
d. Houghton, D. L., and Hall, D. J. 1972
the construction contract. The design team should
be present during placement of the test section and
(Mar). "Elimination of Grout on Horizontal Con-
struction Joints at Dworshak Dam," ACI Journal,
during the initial placements for the RCC structure
to assure that strength and serviceability require-
ments will be met.
e. Lemmons, Ronnie M. 1988 (Oct). "Leak-
11. RCC Costs
proofing," Civil Engineering, pp 58-60.
f. Hansen, K. D. 1986 (Jan). "Roller Com-
Unit costs of RCC range from 25 to 50 percent of
pacted Concrete Developments in the USA," Water
the cost of conventionally placed concrete, depend-
Power and Dam Construction.
ing on the quantity of RCC being placed and on the
complexity of placement. More detailed informa-
g. Hansen, K. D. 1987. "Roller Compacted
tion regarding RCC cost is provided in
EM 1110-2-2006, "Roller Compacted Concrete"
Concrete Dams Worldwide," Water Power and Dam
h. Dunstan, Malcolm R. H. 1983 (Mar).
"Development of Rolled Concrete Dam for Milton
a. American Concrete Institute Committee 207.
Brook," Concrete International, pp 19-31.
1988 (Sept-Oct). "Roller Compacted Mass Con-
crete," 207.5R, ACI Materials Journal.