gravity body force. There are no gravity body

forces applied for the foundation since the deforma-

tion due to self weight would have occurred in the

foundation before the construction of the lock.

Body forces in the foundation are ignored by

Concrete

assigning a value of zero to the unit weight of the

Ε

3,500.0 ksi

rock, as shown in Table A-1. The vertical force for

υ

0.2

water in the culvert is omitted because the water

γ

0.150 kip/ft3

level in the lock is below the floor of the culvert.

Rock

Horizontal forces due to hydrostatic and lateral

earth pressures acting on the vertical plane defined

Ε

3,500.0 ksi

by the back face of the monolith and passing

υ

0.2

through the backfill are applied to the mesh as

γ

0.0 kip/ft3

Concrete/Rock Interface

(4)

0.0 ksi .

√in

KIc

Soil

Ε

for *y *≤ *H *and

3.5 ksi

υ

0.35

γ

0.125 kip/ft3

γs

0.130 kip/ft3

γw)(*y*

γw

0.0625 kip/ft3

γw(*y H*)

(5)

ΚH

0.45

KV

0.2

for *H *< *y *≤ (*H *+ *H*s), where *y *is the distance below

the top of the backfill. Figure A-6 illustrates how

where *H *is the height of the backfill above the

the pressure *p*h is applied to the mesh. The hori-

zontal force for water in the lock chamber is not

between the water table and the foundation. The

included because the lock is assumed to be

vertical (drag) forces due to differential settlement

dewatered. Uplift pressures are modeled according

within the backfill acting on the vertical plane

to Case 1 of paragraph 3*b*. Uplift pressures at the

defined by the back face of the monolith and pass-

base of the monolith are applied to the mesh as a

ing through the backfill are applied to the mesh as

combination of pressures and initial stresses. Pres-

sures corresponding to full hydrostatic uplift are

applied on the surface of all elements adjacent to

(2)

the assumed crack surfaces. Initial stresses are

applied to the elements which are adjacent to the

interface between the monolith and the foundation.

The initial stresses σ0 are specified as nodal pore

for *y *≤ *H *and

pressures *p *and are converted to initial stresses such

that

γw)(*y*

(3)

σxx

*p*

0

for *H *< *y *≤ (*H *+ *H*s), where *y *is the distance below

σ

*p*

yy

σ0

(6)

0

σzz

*p*

Equation 3 is based on the effective pressure. Fig-

0

ure A-5 illustrates how the pressure *p*v and the trac-

τ

0

xy

tion *t*d are applied to the mesh. The vertical force

0

due to the weight of the monolith is applied as a

A-6