U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
Washington, DC 20314-1000
31 August 1994
Engineering and Design
NONLINEAR, INCREMENTAL STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS
OF MASSIVE CONCRETE STRUCTURES
U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,
3909 Halls Ferry Road, Vicksburg, MS 39180-6199.
This engineer technical letter (ETL) provides
guidance for performing a nonlinear, incremental
e. Hibbitt, Karlsson, and Sorenson, Inc. 1989.
structural analysis (NISA) for massive concrete struc-
"ABAQUS User's Manual, Version 4.9," Pawtucket,
This ETL applies to HQUSACE elements, major
a. Background. Current design practice for
subordinate commands, districts, laboratories, and
MCS was developed in the 1960's. Structural analy-
field operating activities (FOA) having responsibilities
sis methods did not integrate the effects of thermal
for the design of civil works projects.
and mechanical stresses and did not accurately predict
the behavior of complex hydraulic structures. Results
were usually safe, but very conservative. Advances
in analysis techniques and computer technology have
greatly improved structural design capabilities. Finite
a. EM 1110-2-2000, Standard Practice for
element analysis can be used to account for complex
geometry and loading, thermal stresses, nonlinear
material behavior, and sequential construction. These
b. ACI Committee 207. 1973 (Reapproved
techniques have already been applied to the design of
1986). "Effect of Restraint, Volume Change, and
lock monoliths, arch dams, and other MCS. They
Reinforcement on Cracking of Massive Concrete,"
provide a more realistic, comprehensive understand-
ACI 207.2R-73, American Concrete Institute,
ing of structural behavior.
Box 19150, Detroit, MI 48219.
b. Types of massive concrete structures. MCS
c. ANATECH Research Corp. 1992.
are defined by the American Concrete Institute Com-
"ANACAP-U, ANATECH Concrete Analysis
mittee 207 (1973-R86) as "any large volume of cast-
Package, Version 92-2.2, User's Manual,"
in-place concrete with dimensions large enough to
P. O. Box 9165, Ladolla, CA 92038.
require that measures be taken to cope with the
generation of heat and attendant volume changes to
minimize cracking." There are three types of MCS
d. Garner, S. B., Bombich, A. A.,
commonly used for civil works projects. Gravity
Norman, C. D., Merrill, C., Fehl, B., and
structures are used for dams and lock walls; thick
Jones, H. W. 1992. "Nonlinear, Incremental Struc-
shell structures are used for arch dams; and thick
tural Analysis of Olmsted Locks and Dams -
Volume I, Main Text," Technical Report SL-92-28,
This ETL supersedes ETL 1110-2-324, dated March 1990.