16 Aug 94
5. SITE SELECTION. The proper siting of a facility can be of
enormous value for improving survivability through CCD. The
effective use of terrain and natural cover to prevent the attack-
er from viewing the target has been a major CCD measure used
throughout history. By using topography to obscure the view
along probable attack avenues and natural vegetation for hiding
structures, targeting cues are drastically reduced. The general
guidelines indicated below should be followed.
a. Avoid Orientation Features. Whenever possible, facili-
ties should not be built near easily identifiable cultural or
natural features such as lakes, rivers, towns, crossroads,
monuments, etc. It is probably not practical to build a facility
without nearby roads, rivers, railroads, etc.; however, whenever
possible these should be avoided because they are easily followed
to the target area. The designer must also be careful not to
worsen the problem by adding new orientation features.
b. Select Complex Terrain Patterns. When possible, the
facility should be placed in a region exhibiting a complex
terrain pattern, rather than a simple or relatively featureless
terrain as shown in figures A-4 and A-5. When a simple terrain
is the only option, use local vegetation to conceal the facility
as shown in figure A-6.
c. Select a Concealed Location. Study the base terrain
features and try to locate facilities so that they are obscured
or partially obscured by the terrain. For example, locate the
facility in and around tall trees, rock formations, and hills or
locate the facility in a dry ravine where no danger of flooding
exists and adequate drainage is available.
d. Avoid Regular Building Patterns. While facilities laid
out in a regular pattern or gridwork are standard in military
construction, they also represent a key targeting cue to an
attack aircraft. Fit facilities into the natural topography and
vegetation and avoid regular patterns.
e. Utilize Dispersal. If possible, facilities that could be
valuable targets should be dispersed so that they must be at-
6. CONSPICUOUS FEATURES. Conspicuous building features that
should be avoided or properly oriented are described below.
a. Right Angles and Vertical Surfaces. Right angles and
vertical surfaces actively promote detection. Right angles are
sources of strong radar returns, and vertical surfaces are
observed by the shadows they create and the strong thermal