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(3) Fire protection/prevention arrangements.
the time frames dictated by the local hydrologic conditions,
the deficiencies must be noted and used to formulate
(4) Emergency medical service, care center, and shelter
(2) Five criteria (Neal and Lee 1988) can be used to
(5) Flood emergency utility services protection and
determine the overall effectiveness of institutional response to
(6) Flood fighting, protection and damage reduction
(a) Experience. Institutional experience that helps
measures, and programs including relocation and protection
improve future response comes from several sources:
of damageable property.
(7) Public information and training programs.
Recent flood experience heightens community
awareness. It also draws agencies together in a
d. Postflood recovery and reoccupation programs.
postflood analysis to create an improved working
Any postflood recovery and reoccupation programs that are
currently in place should be described in detail.
Recent disaster experience also works to improve
e. Plan and program management, operation, and
future response. Even if the disaster was unrelated
maintenance programs. Plan management is required to
to a flood event, the experience of emergency
maintain the viability and functionality of the plan compo-
officials working together builds relationships that
nents for the relatively long periods that may pass between
help make a more efficient response to future events.
operation (flood events). Determine whether institutional
Exercises and drills allow emergency personnel to
implementation and continued effective operation and
think through disaster scenarios and potential prob-
maintenance of the existing flood warning - preparedness plan
lems. A history of drills and exercises in the com-
are in place. Determine and document whether these
munity often suggests that the key agencies will
agreements include consideration for the following.
function together properly when an emergency
personnel assignments, and community maps.
Up-to-date emergency plans indicate that the
community has made an investment in
(2) Operation, testing, maintenance, and replacement of
preparedness and, at least, has thought through the
hardware and software.
(3) Continued practice drills, education, and training of
(b) Networks. Organizations generally work together
responsible community officials and the general public.
better if their representatives know each other. Frequent con-
tact between the key response agencies during interevent
f. Institutional arrangements. Institutional arrange-
periods usually creates a more efficient response operation.
ments are formal and informal organizational arrangements
for communication, coordination, and conduct of operations
Effective decision-making is
required to implement a flood warning - preparedness plan.
crucial for effective response. Information must get to the
Specifically, the institutional analysis defines the existing
proper place accurately and in a timely fashion. Flexibility
processes for information collection, analysis, and dissemina-
and participatory command and control can aid decision-
tion for each plan component. The organizational authorities,
making during emergency operations.
responsibilities, and general capabilities to carry out potential
plan enhancements must also be determined.
(d) Communication. Interagency communication is a
key success parameter in emergency response situations. Any
(1) The time required for local institutions to recognize a
communication delay inhibits effective decision-making.
flood threat and to disseminate a warning to their constituents
Communication within the organization is equally important.
is an important consideration. The hydrologic analysis that
Field staff and headquarters staff must communicate
determined the potential warning time for a community sets
frequently and accurately. Internal problems can delay
the boundary conditions within which the institutions must
warning messages just as effectively as external
operate. If institutions cannot meet their stated goals within