16 Aug 94
d. Buried Structures. Buried structures should keep the
covering mound as low as possible and planting materials local to
the immediate surroundings should be used on the mound. Refrain
from planting foliage that is different from the surroundings.
The entrances to belowground structures should be concealed or
oriented as much as possible away from attack avenues and toward
line-of-sight obstructions. These openings are generally cooler
than the surroundings and present a strong thermal infrared
signature that is easy to identify from the air.
e. Surface Structures. The following measures will reduce
the target detection range of surface structures.
(1) Structure Height. Tall structures are easier to
find during a low altitude approach, and the shadows they produce
make them more visible from all altitudes. Single story
structures are preferable and should be kept as low as possible.
(2) Structure Size. Structures should be kept as small
as possible to reduce target size. Multiple, dispersed, small
structures are preferable to one large structure.
(3) Structure Orientation. Present the smallest aspect
to the attacker. The smallest structure face should be oriented
toward likely attack avenues. Large structure faces should be
oriented away from attack avenues or toward line-of-sight ob-
f. Conspicuous Features. If conspicuous building features
such as windows, doors, driveways, and vents cannot be avoided,
they should be confined to one side of the building and_ if
possible, oriented away from attack avenues and toward line-of-
sight obstructions. Even if the attack avenue is unknown, at
least the building is only conspicuous in one direction rather
than several. The remainder of the building surfaces should
utilize blending or at least be made as featureless as possible.
g. Feature Deceptions. Care should be taken to ensure that
any deceptions applied to buildings are effective in all speci-
fied viewing spectra. For example, a false window can be made to
have the same visual signature as a real window, but the thermal
infrared and radar signatures could be very different from that
of a real window. The same problem occurs when metal siding is
color treated to look like concrete.
h. Utilities and Equipment. Utility service lines should be
belowground. Long runs of isolated aerial electrical service
should be avoided. Wartime equipment such as power generation
equipment and air-cooled condensers should be located inside.