16 Aug 94
attack aircraft crew will usually look for doors, windows, vents,
or other soft areas to use as aiming points or will look for
c. CCD Defense. The objective of permanent CCD measures is
to disrupt or at least slow down the process of attack initia-
tion, target recognition, and target acquisition. If this can be
achieved, weapon accuracy is degraded, the attacker is forced to
select an alternate and less valuable target, or the attacker is
forced to abort weapon launch and initiate a second attack.
During a second attack, the element of surprise is lost and the
attack aircraft is more vulnerable to air defense weapons.
Because attacks are carried out at low altitude and high speed,
CCD measures need not make the target invisible. They need only
cause momentary doubt or confusion.
3. THREAT DEFINITION. The threat from manned attack aircraft
should be defined by the using service in terms of attack pro-
files, attack directions, imaging and weapon guidance sensors,
surveillance capabilities. When possible, information can also
be obtained by interviewing local aircrews on how they would
execute an attack.
a. Attack Profiles. An attack profile consists of the
attack flight path and speed, and it depends mainly on the air
defense systems and attack aircraft capabilities. Modern air
defense systems usually include radar warning systems and ground-
to-air missiles that dictate a low altitude and high speed
attack, and most modern attack aircraft have navigation and
imaging systems that make this type of attack possible. If
specific attack profile information is not available, the typical
low altitude attack profiles shown in figure A-1 should be used.
b. Attack Directions. The most likely attack directions
include a straight line from a prominent point orientation
feature to the target and along linear orientation features such
as roads, railroads, runways, and rivers. The attack direction
may also coincide with gaps in warning radar coverage or other
inherent weaknesses in the air defense system. Specific informa-
tion on likely attack directions can be obtained from the base
c. Target Acquisition for Bombing. The slant range or air-
craft to target slant distance for initializing target acquisi-
tion for bombing should be taken as 6,000 to 8,000 feet. This is
the typical distance at which target tracking first occurs. To
change targets after reaching this slant range would result in