1 May 05
d. Engineering Computer Graphics Laboratory. 1996. FastSEEP Automated Seepage
Analysis Reference Manual, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.
e. Gabr, M. A., Taylor, H. M., Jr., Brizendine, A. L., and Wolff, T. F. 1995. LEVEEMSU:
Analysis Software for Levee Underseepage and Rehabilitation, Technical Report GL-95-9,
U.S. Army Engineer Waterway Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
f. Hess, J. R. and Sills, G. L. 2004. A Review of Corps of Engineers Levee Seepage
Practices in the Central California Flood Control System, Working Rivers- Balanced Resource
Management 24th Annual USSD Conference, St. Louis, MO, April 2004.
g. Knowles, V. R. 1992. Applications of the Finite Element Seepage Analysis Corps
Program CSEEP (X8202), Technical Report ITL-92-6, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways
Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
h. Tracy, F. T. 1994. Seepage Package, CSEEP Micro Version, X8202, U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
i. U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station. 1956. Investigation of Underseepage
and Its Control, Lower Mississippi River Levees, Technical Memorandum No. TM-3-424, 2
Vols., U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station, Vicksburg, MS.
j. USACE. 2003. Recommendations For Seepage Design Criteria, Evaluation and Design
Practices, Report prepared for the Sacramento District, 15 July 2003.
k. Wolff, T. F. 1989. LEVEEMSU: A Software Package Designed for Levee Underseepage
Analysis, Technical Report GL-89-13, U.S. Army Engineer Waterways Experiment Station,
5. Background. [Appendix C-1]
a. Empirical Performance Data Base. One of the more important contributions to
underseepage design criteria was the work presented in TM 3-424, "Investigation of
Underseepage and Its Control, Lower Mississippi River Levees," U.S. Army Engineer
Waterways Experiment Station, 1956. The purpose of TM 3-424 was (1) to develop a better
understanding of the phenomena of seepage beneath levees and of the factors that influence
underseepage, (2) to obtain information that would make possible a rational analysis of
underseepage, and (3) to study various means of underseepage control and develop formulas and
criteria for their design. The relationship, shown in Figure 1, between severity of seepage and
upward gradient through the top stratum at the levee toe was established for 16 sites along the
Lower Mississippi River during the 1950 flood.